Please wait a minute...


China Biotechnology
China Biotechnology  2017, Vol. 37 Issue (9): 134-140    DOI: 10.13523/j.cb.20170918
Progress of Biosynthesis of Sophorolipids and Its Derivatives Production in Starmerella bombicola
ZHANG Ya-guang, ZHANG Chuan-bo, LU Wen-yu
Department of Biological Engineering and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering of the Ministry of Education, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China
Download:   PDF(618KB) HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Abstract  Sophorolipids, which is a kind of extracellular products, was produced by Starmerella bombicola under aerobic condition. As the member of biosurfactants, sophorolipids has shown excellent surface activity, biodegrade ability, low ecotoxicity and biocompatibility. Research progress of biosynthesis of sophorolipids is summarized, including metabolic pathway, key enzymes and genetic engineering of S. bombicola. Basic problems on efficient synthesis of sophorolipids in S. bombicola are discussed and a prospect of using S. bombicola as a new chassis for sophorolipids biosynthesis is analyzed.

Key wordsSophorolipids      Biosynthesis      Starmerella bombicola     
Received: 18 April 2017      Published: 25 September 2017
ZTFLH:  Q819  
Cite this article:

ZHANG Ya-guang, ZHANG Chuan-bo, LU Wen-yu. Progress of Biosynthesis of Sophorolipids and Its Derivatives Production in Starmerella bombicola. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(9): 134-140.

URL:     OR

[1] Van Bogaert I, Saerens K, De Muynck C, et al. Microbial production and application of sophorolipids. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2007, 76(1):23.
[2] Banat I M, Makkar R S, Cameotra S S. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2000, 53(5):495-508.
[3] Kim S Y, Oh D K, Lee K H, et al. Effect of soybean oil and glucose on sophorose lipid fermentation by Torulopsis bombicola in continuous culture. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1997, 48(1):23-26.
[4] Cooper D G, Paddock D A. Production of a Biosurfactant from Torulopsis bombicola. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 1984, 47(1):173.
[5] Baccile N, Nassif N, Malfatti L, et al. Sophorolipids:a yeast-derived glycolipid as greener structure directing agents for self-assembled nanomaterials. Green Chemistry, 2010, 12(9):1564-1567.
[6] Makkar R, Cameotra S. An update on the use of unconventional substrates for biosurfactant production and their new applications. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2002, 58(4):428-434.
[7] Otto R T, Daniel H J, Pekin G, et al. Production of sophorolipids from whey. Ⅱ. Product composition, surface active properties, cytotoxicity and stability against hydrolases by enzymatic treatment. Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology, 1999, 52(4):495-501.
[8] Cavalero D A, Cooper D G. The effect of medium composition on the structure and physical state of sophorolipids produced by Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. Journal of Biotechnology, 2003, 103(1):31-41.
[9] Daniel H J, Syldatk C R M. Production of sophorolipids in high concentration from deproteinized whey and rapeseed oil in a two stage fed batch process using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 and Cryptococcus curvatus ATCC 20509. Biotechnology Letters, 1998, 20(12):1153-1156.
[10] Rau U, Manzke C, Wagner F. Influence of substrate supply on the production of sophorose lipids by Candida bombicola, ATCC 22214. Biotechnology Letters, 1996, 18(2):149-154.
[11] Asmer H J, Lang S, Wagner F, et al. Microbial production, structure elucidation and bioconversion of sophorose lipids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 1988, 65(9):1460-1466.
[12] Davila A M, Marchal R, Monin N, et al. Identification and determination of individual sophorolipids in fermentation products by gradient elution high-performance liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection. J Chromatogr, 1993, 648(1):139-149.
[13] Ashby R D, Nuñez A, Solaiman D K Y, et al. Sophorolipid biosynthesis from a biodiesel co-product stream. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2005, 82(9):625-630.
[14] Shah V, Doncel G F, Seyoum T, et al. Sophorolipids, microbial glycolipids with anti-human immunodeficiency virus and sperm-immobilizing activities. Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy, 2005, 49(10):4093-100.
[15] Shin J D, Lee J, Kim Y B, et al. Production and characterization of methyl ester sophorolipids with 22-carbon-fatty acids. Bioresource Technology, 2010, 101(9):3170-4.
[16] Jia X, Qi L, Zhang Y, et al. Computational fluid dynamics simulation of a novel bioreactor for sophorolipids production. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2016,25(6):732-740.
[17] Yang X, Zhu L, Xue C, et al. Recovery of purified lactonic sophorolipids by spontaneous crystallization during the fermentation of sugarcane molasses with Candida albicans O-13-1. Enzyme & Microbial Technology, 2012, 51(6-7):348-353.
[18] Ina V B, Develter D, Soetaert W, et al. Cerulenin inhibits de novo sophorolipid synthesis of Candida bombicola. Biotechnology Letters, 2008, 30(10):1829.
[19] Hommel R K, Stegner S, Kleber H P, et al. Effect of ammonium ions on glycolipid production by Candida, (Torulopsis) apicola. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 1994, 42(2):192-197.
[20] Van Bogaert I N, Groeneboer S, Saerens K, et al. The role of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases in microbial fatty acid metabolism. Febs Journal, 2011, 278(2):206-221.
[21] Van Bogaert I N A, Demey M, Develter D, et al. Importance of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP52 family for the sophorolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola. FEMS yeast research, 2009, 9(1):87-94.
[22] Saerens K M J, Roelants S L K W, Van Bogaert I N A, et al. Identification of the UDP-glucosyltransferase gene UGTA1, responsible for the first glucosylation step in the sophorolipid biosynthetic pathway of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. Fems Yeast Research, 2011, 11(1):123-132.
[23] Saerens K M J, Roelants S L K W, Van Bogaert I N A, et al. Identification of the UDP-glucosyltransferase gene UGTA1, responsible for the first glucosylation step in the sophorolipid biosynthetic pathway of Candida bombicola ATCC 22214. Fems Yeast Research, 2011, 11(1):123-132.
[24] Saerens K M, Saey L, Soetaert W. One-step production of unacetylated sophorolipids by an acetyltransferase negative Candida bombicola. Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 2011, 108(12):2923-2931.
[25] Andrade A C, Nistelrooy J G M V, Peery R B, et al. The role of ABC transporters from Aspergillus nidulans, in protection against cytotoxic agents and in antibiotic production. Molecular Genetics and Genomics, 2000, 263(6):966-977.
[26] Krogh A, Larsson B, Von H G, et al. Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden Markov model:application to complete genomes. Journal of Molecular Biology, 2001, 305(3):567.
[27] Van Bogaert I N, Holvoet K, Roelants S L, et al. The biosynthetic gene cluster for sophorolipids:a biotechnological interesting biosurfactant produced by Starmerella bombicola. Molecular Microbiology, 2013, 88(3):501-509.
[28] Dawson R J P, Locher K P. Structure of the multidrug ABC transporter Sav1866 from Staphylococcus aureus in complex with AMP-PNP. Febs Letters, 2007, 581(5):935.
[29] Bogaert I N A V, Zhang J, Soetaert W. Microbial synthesis of sophorolipids. Process Biochemistry, 2011, 46(4):821-833.
[30] Ciesielska K, Van Bogaert I N, Chevineau S, et al. Exoproteome analysis of Starmerella bombicola results in the discovery of an esterase required for lactonization of sophorolipids. Journal of Proteomics, 2014, 98(4):159-174.
[31] Ciesielska K, Roelants S L K W, Bogaert I N A V, et al. Characterization of a novel enzyme- Starmerella bombicola, lactone esterase (SBLE)-responsible for sophorolipid lactonization. Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology, 2016, 100(22):1-13.
[32] Van Bogaert I N, De Maeseneire S L, Develter D, et al. Development of a transformation and selection system for the glycolipid-producing yeast Candida bombicola. Yeast,2008, 25(4):273-278.
[33] Roelants S L K W, De Maeseneire S L, Ciesielska K, et al. Biosurfactant gene clusters in eukaryotes:regulation and biotechnological potential. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2014, 98(8):3449-3461.
[34] Saerens K M J, Saey L, Soetaert W. One-step production of unacetylated sophorolipids by an acetyltransferase negative Candida bombicola. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2011, 108(12):2923-2931.
[35] Van Bogaert I N A, Buyst D, Martins J C, et al. Synthesis of bolaform biosurfactants by an engineered Starmerella bombicola yeast. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2016, 113(12):2644-2651.
[36] Van Bogaert I N A, Sabirova J, Develter D, et al. Knocking out the MFE-2 gene of Candida bombicola leads to improved medium-chain sophorolipid production. FEMS Yeast Research, 2009, 9(4):610-617.
[37] Matsuzawa T, Koike H, Saika A, et al. Draft genome sequence of the yeast Starmerella bombicola NBRC10243, a producer of sophorolipids, glycolipid biosurfactants. Genome Announcements, 2015, 3(2):e00176-15.
[38] Li J, Li H, Li W, et al. Identification and characterization of a flavin-containing monooxygenase MoA and its function in a specific sophorolipid molecule metabolism in Starmerella bombicola. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2016, 100(3):1307-1318.
[39] Li J, Xia C, Fang X, et al. Identification and characterization of a long-chain fatty acid transporter in the sophorolipid-producing strain Starmerella bombicola. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2016, 100(16):7137-7150.
[40] Takahashi F, Igarashi K, Hagihara H. Identification of the fatty alcohol oxidase FAO1 from Starmerella bombicola and improved novel glycolipids production in an FAO1 knockout mutant. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2016, 100(22):9519-9528.
[41] Roelants S L K W, Saerens K M J, Derycke T, et al. Candida bombicola as a platform organism for the production of tailor-made biomolecules. Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2013, 110(9):2494-2503.
[1] GAO Hong-jiang, LI Sheng-yan, WANG Hai, LIN Feng, ZHANG Chun-yu, LANG Zhi-hong. Progress on Function and Biosynthesis of Benzoxazinoids[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(8): 104-109.
[2] ZHENG Tian-xiang, QIAN Yu-nong, ZHANG Da-yu. Key Genes Involved in Fatty Acids Biosynthesis in Insects[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(11): 19-27.
[3] YANG Xian-peng, WANG Zhou-ya, GAO Xiang, LI Rong-jun, LÜ Shi-you. Research Progress in Plant Cuticular Wax Biosynthesize and Regulation[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(9): 75-80.
[4] ZHANG Qiang, LI Da shuai, LU Wen yu. Progress and Prospect of Heterologous Biosynthesis of Ttriterpenoids in Engineered Escherichia coli[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(11): 83-89.
[5] FENG Ya-bin, ZHUANG Xin-chen, SHEN Xiao-xia, JIANG Jian-ming, WANG Zhong-hua. Pharmacological Effects and Biosynthetic Pathway of Steroidal Alkaloids of Medicinal Plant[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(1): 101-107.
[6] WANG Rong-hua, SUN Xiu-juan, LI Qian, YAN Zhen-xin, Peter Proksch. The Research Progress of Marine Functional Molecules Phloroglucinol[J]. China Biotechnology, 2015, 35(10): 115-121.
[7] JIANG Yan-chao, JIANG Shi-yun, FU Feng-ming, HUANG Kai, KANG Xing-xin, XU Dan. Advance in Research on HA Biosynthesis and Gene Engineering[J]. China Biotechnology, 2015, 35(1): 104-110.
[8] WANG Wei-wei, Tang Liang, ZHOU Wen-long, YANG Yan, GAO Bo, ZHAO Yun-Feng, WANG Wei. Progress in the Biosynthesis and Metabolism of Glutathione[J]. China Biotechnology, 2014, 34(7): 89-95.
[9] LIU Chan, WANG Yu-jian, LI Da-ping, GAO Ping, HE Xiao-hong. Preliminary Study of Biosynthetic Jarosite and Schwertmannite by Immobilized Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans[J]. China Biotechnology, 2013, 33(10): 81-88.
[10] CHEN Sheng, LI Yan, LIU Huan, YAN Ming, XU Lin. Research Advances in Biosynthesis of UDPG[J]. China Biotechnology, 2012, 32(09): 125-130.
[11] YAO Jing, REN Jing, WU Zheng-jun, SUN Ke-jie, GUO Ben-heng. Cloning and Expression of the Key Enzyme Gene in Biosynthesis of Sialyl Lewis X[J]. China Biotechnology, 2011, 31(12): 51-56.
[12] HUO Pei, JI Jing, WANG Gang, GUAN Chun-feng. Biosynthesis and Function of Carotenoid in Plant[J]. China Biotechnology, 2011, 31(11): 107-113.
[13] WANG Wei, WEI Bryan, PUN Sing, QING Dong-jin, WONG Wai-shing, ZHANG Shi-hua, WANG Lei, LI Ning. Profiling of Gene Expression in the Reproductive Organs of Jatropha curcas[J]. China Biotechnology, 2011, 31(06): 38-48.
[14] ZHU Dao-chen, LIU Xing-rong. Compatible Solutes Ectoine and Its Derivate Hydroxyectoine[J]. China Biotechnology, 2011, 31(02): 95-101.
[15] LU Zi-xian, WU Song-ling, SUN Chang-po. Research Advancement on Biosynthesis and Degradation of Zearalenone[J]. China Biotechnology, 2011, 31(02): 116-123.