Please wait a minute...

中国生物工程杂志

China Biotechnology
China Biotechnology  2016, Vol. 36 Issue (9): 75-80    DOI: 10.13523/j.cb.20160909
    
Research Progress in Plant Cuticular Wax Biosynthesize and Regulation
YANG Xian-peng1,2, WANG Zhou-ya1,2, GAO Xiang1,2, LI Rong-jun, LÜ Shi-you1
1 Key Laboratory of Plant Germplasm Enhancement and Specialty Agriculture, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, China;
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Download:   PDF(372KB) HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)      

Abstract  

The epicuticular wax coating the aerial surface of land plants is a hydrophobic lipid component, which forms a barrier against environmental stresses. It plays key roles in restricting non-stomatal water loss, protecting plants against the attack of pathogen and insect, and ultraviolet radiation. Recent progress on the biosynthesis pathway and regulation of epicuticular wax was reviewed. The questions and future application were discussed.



Key wordsEpicuticular wax      Biosynthesis      Regulation     
Received: 17 March 2016      Published: 25 September 2016
ZTFLH:  Q946.8  
Cite this article:

YANG Xian-peng, WANG Zhou-ya, GAO Xiang, LI Rong-jun, LÜ Shi-you. Research Progress in Plant Cuticular Wax Biosynthesize and Regulation. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(9): 75-80.

URL:

http://manu60.magtech.com.cn/biotech/10.13523/j.cb.20160909     OR     http://manu60.magtech.com.cn/biotech/Y2016/V36/I9/75

[1] Jetter R, Kunst L. Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for metabolic engineering of waxes and hydrocarbon biofuels. The Plant Journal, 2008, 54(4):670-683.
[2] Kosma D K, Bourdenx B, Bernard A, et al. The impact of water deficiency on leaf cuticle lipids of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 2009, 151(4):1918-1929.
[3] Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, et al. The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 2004, 16(9):2463-2480.
[4] Seo P J, Lee S B, Suh M C, et al. The MYB96 transcription factor regulates cuticular wax biosynthesis under drought conditions in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 2011, 23(3):1138-1152.
[5] Liu W, Zhou X, Li G, et al. Multiple plant surface signals are sensed by different mechanisms in the rice blast fungus for appressorium formation. PLoS Pathogens, 2011, 7(1):e1001261.
[6] Uppalapati S R, Ishiga Y, Doraiswamy V, et al. Loss of abaxial leaf epicuticular wax in Medicago truncatula irg1/palm1 mutants results in reduced spore differentiation of anthracnose and nonhost rust pathogens. Plant Cell, 2012, 24(1):353-370.
[7] Kunst L, Samuels A L. Biosynthesis and secretion of plant cuticular wax. Progress in Lipid Research, 2003, 42(1):51-80.
[8] Li N, Gügel I L, Giavalisco P, et al. FAX1, A novel membrane protein mediating plastid fatty acid export. PLoS Biology, 2015, 13(2):e1002053-e1002053.
[9] Kunst L, Samuels L. Plant cuticles shine:advances in wax biosynthesis and export. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 2009, 12(6):721-727.
[10] Li-Beisson Y, Shorrosh B, Beisson F, et al. Acyl-lipid metabolism. The Arabidopsis book/American Society of Plant Biologists, 2013, 11(8):e0133.
[11] Millar A A, Kunst L. Very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis is controlled through the expression and specificity of the condensing enzyme. The Plant Journal, 1997, 12(1):121-131.
[12] Millar A A, Clemens S, Zachgo S, et al. CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme. Plant Cell, 1999, 11(5):825-838.
[13] Todd J, Post-Beittenmiller D, Jaworski J G. KCS1 encodes a fatty acid elongase 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase affecting wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Journal, 1999, 17(2):119-130.
[14] Fiebig A, Mayfield J A, Miley N L, et al. Alterations in CER6, a gene identical to CUT1, differentially affect long-chain lipid content on the surface of pollen and stems. Plant Cell, 2000, 12(10):2001-2008.
[15] Pruitt R E, Vielle-Calzada J P, Ploense S E, et al. FIDDLEHEAD, a gene required to suppress epidermal cell interactions in Arabidopsis, encodes a putative lipid biosynthetic enzyme. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2000, 97(3):1311-1316.
[16] Franke R, Hofer R, Briesen I, et al. The DAISY gene from Arabidopsis encodes a fatty acid elongase condensing enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic suberin in roots and the chalaza-micropyle region of seeds. Plant Journal, 2009, 57(1):80-95.
[17] Kim J, Jung J H, Lee S B, et al. Arabidopsis 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme a synthase9 is involved in the synthesis of tetracosanoic acids as precursors of cuticular waxes, suberins, sphingolipids, and phospholipids. Plant Physiology, 2013, 162(2):567-580.
[18] Quist T M, Sokolchik I, Shi H, et al. HOS3, an ELO-like gene, inhibits effects of ABA and implicates a S-1-P/ceramide control system for abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Molecular Plant, 2009, 2(1):138-151.
[19] Bach L, Faure J D. Role of very-long-chain fatty acids in plant development, when chain length does matter. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 2010, 333(4):361-370.
[20] Haslam T M, Kunst L. Extending the story of very-long-chain fatty acid elongation. Plant Science, 2013, 210C(9):93-107.
[21] Beaudoin F, Wu X, Li F, et al. Functional characterization of the Arabidopsis beta-ketoacyl-coenzyme A reductase candidates of the fatty acid elongase. Plant Physiol, 2009, 150(3):1174-1191.
[22] Bach L, Michaelson L V, Haslam R, et al. The very-long-chain hydroxy fatty acyl-CoA dehydratase PASTICCINO2 is essential and limiting for plant development. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2008, 105(38):14727-14731.
[23] Zheng H, Rowland O, Kunst L. Disruptions of the Arabidopsis enoyl-CoA reductase gene reveal an essential role for very-long-chain fatty acid synthesis in cell expansion during plant morphogenesis. Plant Cell, 2005, 17(5):1467-1481.
[24] Haslam T M, Mañas-Fernández A, Zhao L, et al. Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM2 is a component of the fatty acid elongation machinery required for fatty acid extension to exceptional lengths. Plant Physiology, 2012, 160(3):1164-1174.
[25] Pascal S, Bernard A, Sorel M, et al. The Arabidopsis cer26 mutant, like the cer2 mutant, is specifically affected in the very long chain fatty acid elongation process. The Plant Journal, 2013, 73(5):733-746.
[26] Rowland O, Zheng H, Hepworth S R, et al. CER4 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme a reductase involved in cuticular wax production in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 2006, 142(3):866-877.
[27] Li F, Wu X, Lam P, et al. Identification of the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme a:diacylglycerol acyltransferase WSD1 required for stem wax ester biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 2008, 148(1):97-107.
[28] Bourdenx B, Bernard A, Domergue F, et al. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 promotes wax very-long-chain alkane biosynthesis and influences plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant Physiology, 2011, 156(1):29-45.
[29] Bernard A, Domergue F, Pascal S, et al. Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain alkane synthesis complex. Plant Cell, 2012, 24(7):3106-3118.
[30] Greer S, Wen M, Bird D, et al. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP96A15 is the midchain alkane hydroxylase responsible for formation of secondary alcohols and ketones in stem cuticular wax of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 2007, 145(3):653-667.
[31] Wang J Q, Sun L, Xie L, et al. Regulation of cuticle formation during fruit development and ripening in "Newhall" navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) revealed by transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling. Plant Science, 2016, 243:131-144.
[32] Broun P, Poindexter P, Osborne E, et al. WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2004, 101(13):4706-4711.
[33] Kannangara R, Branigan C, Liu Y, et al. The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell, 2007, 19(4):1278-1294.
[34] Lee S B, Suh M C. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is up-regulated by the MYB94 transcription factor in Arabidopsis. Plant and Cell Physiology, 2014:pcu142.
[35] Oshima Y, Shikata M, Koyama T, et al. MIXTA-like transcription factors and WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 coordinately regulate cuticle development in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri. Plant Cell, 2013, 25(5):1609-1624.
[36] Go Y S, Kim H, Kim H J, et al. Arabidopsis cuticular Wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated by the DEWAX gene encoding an AP2/ERF-type transcription factor. Plant Cell, 2014, 26(4):1666-1680.
[37] Wu R, Li S, He S, et al. CFL1, a WW domain protein, regulates cuticle development by modulating the function of HDG1, a class IV homeodomain transcription factor, in rice and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 2011, 23(9):3392-3411.
[38] Li S, Wang X, He S, et al. CFLAP1 and CFLAP2 Are Two bHLH transcription factors participating in synergistic regulation of AtCFL1-mediated cuticle development in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet, 2016, 12(1):e1005744.
[39] Hooker T S, Lam P, Zheng H, et al. A core subunit of the RNA-processing/degrading exosome specifically influences cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 2007, 19(3):904-913.
[40] Lam P, Zhao L, McFarlane H E, et al. RDR1 and SGS3, components of RNA-mediated gene silencing, are required for the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis in developing inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 2012, 159(4):1385-1395.
[41] Lam P, Zhao L, Eveleigh N, et al. The exosome and trans-acting siRNAs regulate cuticular wax biosynthesis during Arabidopsis inflorescence stem development. Plant Physiology, 2015,167(2):323-336.
[42] Lü S, Zhao H, Des Marais D L, et al. Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM9 involvement in cuticle formation and maintenance of plant water status. Plant Physiology, 2012, 159(3):930-944.
[43] Ménard R, Verdier G, Ors M, et al. Histone H2B monoubiquitination is involved in the regulation of cutin and wax composition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology, 2014, 55(2):455-466.
[44] Jetter R, Kunst L. Plant surface lipid biosynthetic pathways and their utility for metabolic engineering of waxes and hydrocarbon biofuels. Plant J, 2008, 54(4):670-683.

[1] LIU Cui-cui, HU Meng-die, WANG Zhi, DAI Jun, YAO Juan, LI Pei, LI Zhi-jun, CHEN Xiong, LI Xin. Metabolic Characteristics of Intracellular Trehalose Accumulation in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(9): 41-47.
[2] ZHANG Ya-guang, ZHANG Chuan-bo, LU Wen-yu. Progress of Biosynthesis of Sophorolipids and Its Derivatives Production in Starmerella bombicola[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(9): 134-140.
[3] LAI Mu-lan, CHEN Xie-lan. Devolopment of Regulation of Protein Lysine Acetylation on Intermediate Metabolism[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(9): 126-133.
[4] GAO Hong-jiang, LI Sheng-yan, WANG Hai, LIN Feng, ZHANG Chun-yu, LANG Zhi-hong. Progress on Function and Biosynthesis of Benzoxazinoids[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(8): 104-109.
[5] ZHAO Xiu-li, ZHOU Dan-dan, YAN Xiao-guang, WU Hao, CAIYIN Qing-gele, LI Yan-ni, QIAO Jian-jun. Regulation and Application in Metabolic Engineering of Bacterial Small RNAs[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(6): 97-106.
[6] ZHENG Tian-xiang, QIAN Yu-nong, ZHANG Da-yu. Key Genes Involved in Fatty Acids Biosynthesis in Insects[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(11): 19-27.
[7] LI Xiao-fei, CAO Ying-xiu, SONG Hao. CRISPR/Cas9 System:A Recent Progress[J]. China Biotechnology, 2017, 37(10): 86-92.
[8] MENG Qing-ting, TANG Bin. The Role of Carbon Metabolism Repressor CRE in the Regulation of Cellulase Produced by Rhizopus stolonifer[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(3): 31-37.
[9] DAI Yu huan, XU Yao, LUO Ying, DAI Yang, SHI Wei lin, XU Yao. The Transcriptional Regulation of Ca2+ Channel Mediated by Myocardin in H9C2 Cell[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(11): 1-6.
[10] ZHANG Qiang, LI Da shuai, LU Wen yu. Progress and Prospect of Heterologous Biosynthesis of Ttriterpenoids in Engineered Escherichia coli[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(11): 83-89.
[11] FENG Ya-bin, ZHUANG Xin-chen, SHEN Xiao-xia, JIANG Jian-ming, WANG Zhong-hua. Pharmacological Effects and Biosynthetic Pathway of Steroidal Alkaloids of Medicinal Plant[J]. China Biotechnology, 2016, 36(1): 101-107.
[12] WU Qing, LIU Hui-yan, FANG Hai-tian, HE Jian-guo, HE Xiao-guang, YU Li-nan, WANG Meng-jiao. Metabolic Control Fermentation Mechanism and Breeding Strategies of Cytidine Excessive Biosynthesis in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens[J]. China Biotechnology, 2015, 35(9): 122-127.
[13] ZHA Dai-ming, ZHANG Bing-huo, LI Han-quan, YAN Yun-jun. Research Advances in Molecular Biology of Pseudomonas Lipases[J]. China Biotechnology, 2015, 35(9): 114-121.
[14] JIA Cui-li, ZHANG Hua-wei, WANG Bin-bin, ZHU Hong-ji, QIAO Jian-jun. Advances in Research on Natural Competence of Gram-positive Bacteria and Its Physiological Properties[J]. China Biotechnology, 2015, 35(6): 90-100.
[15] WANG Yong-cheng, CHEN Tao, SHI Ting, WANG Zhi-wen, ZHAO Xue-ming. Progress in Biosynthesis of Purine Nucleosides and Their Derivatives by Metabolic Engineering[J]. China Biotechnology, 2015, 35(5): 87-95.